Apple Safari Browser

Apple Safari Browser

Apple Safari browser is owned by the makers of Apple Safari operating system i.e., Apple. Unlike, Microsoft Internet Explorer, this is an open source browser. You can use this browser on both Mac as well as Windows operating systems. Above this, Safari‘s interface is quite enticing. This user-friendly browser is developed using HTML 5 and features full screen videos, geolocation and bing search. One thing that discerns Apple Safari from other browsers is that you can browse through web pages without unwanted advertisements and formatting. This web browser can be downloaded for free from

XMS (Extended Memory Specification)

RAM (random access memory) above the 1-MB address. Extended memory is accessed through an extended memory manager (HIMEM.SYS for DOS).


The largest amount of data that can be handled by the microprocessor in one operation and also, as a rule, the width of the main data bus.

Windows File Protection

A background service in Windows 9x, Windows NT, and Microsoft Windows 2000 that tracks any modification to core system files and warns of potential problems.


A keyboard character that represents one or more characters in a string, usually for specifying more than one file by name. The question mark (?) matches any character in a specified position, and the asterisk (*) matches any number of characters up to the end of the filename or extension.

Warm Boot

The process of restarting a computer that is already running by holding down the Ctrl, Alt, and Delete keys simultaneously. It can also refer to choosing a Shut Down And Restart option in Microsoft Windows 9x or Windows NT.

WAN (Wide Area Network)

A network that spans a large geographical area. The network is connected by means of telephone lines, ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines, DSL, cable, radio waves, or satellite links.

Define Volts

The unit of electromotive force, or the potential energy, that will produce a current of 1 ampere when steadily applied against a resistance of 1 ohm. Voltage is also considered the potential energy of a circuit.

Virtual Memory

Hard disk space that can be used as additional memory for holding data not immediately required by the processor.

Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI)

A memory management specification that accesses extended memory for MS-DOS-based applications. It allows only one application to control extended memory and does not support multi-tasking. Windows is not compatible with the VCPI specification.

VGA (Video Graphics Array)

A graphics adapter that offers 16 colors at a resolution of 640 pixels × 480 pixels. To gain more colors, VGA uses an analog video signal instead of a digital signal. With the analog signal, the VGA standard is able to provide 64 distinct levels for each color, giving users 643 or 262,144 possible colors. It uses a 15-pin, three-row, female DB-type connector.

Vertical Refresh Rate (VRR)

The speed at which a monitor completes all vertical traces.


The vast collection of discussion groups and newsgroups on the Internet.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)

A new external expansion bus that is popular for use with low-speed mass storage devices such as Zip drives, modems, and printers.

UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)

Acts as both a surge suppressor and a power leveler to provide the computer with a constant source of power. It also provides power during a power failure or interruption so the user can safely save data before shutting down.


The ability to transfer (send) a file from one computer to a remote computer.

UMB (upper memory block)

Unused spaces in upper memory that can be divided into blocks. These empty blocks have no RAM associated with them and are simply reserved space. This unused space is valuable because, unlike expanded and extended memory, MS-DOS can run programs in UMB.

UMA (Upper Memory Area)

The area from 640 KB to 1024 KB that is designated for hardware needs such as video RAM, BIOS, and memory-mapped hardware.

Twisted-pair Cable

Consists of two insulated wires twisted around each other to form a pair. One or more twisted pairs are used in a twisted-pair cable.

TSR (terminate-and-stay-resident program)

A computer program, also known as a memory-resident program, that remains in memory after being run so that it can be called up later. These extend the capabilities of the operating system or provide "pop-up" functions (such as a calendar or calculator) that can be brought up in the middle of another program without disturbing that program. These programs were popular in the days of MS-DOS, but lead to numerous problems due to memory usage conflicts.


An electronic device that allows a small current in one place to control a larger current in another place; commonly used as amplifiers in radio and audio circuits.


The layout scheme that describes the way in which network nodes are wired in relation to each other.

Define Telnet

A terminal emulation program that allows you to log on to another computer system over the Internet. You can then run programs on that machine as though you dialed in directly.


The ability to transmit data over telephone lines to a remote computer.

Telecom Software

An application that allows two computers to communicate. Both computers must use compatible software for communication to take place.

TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

The name given to a collection of protocols that were designed in the 1970s for use on the large-scale mixed platform that became the Internet.

Tape Drive

A high-capacity removable magnetic data storage device ideal for backups and retrieval of large amounts of data. Works like a tape recorder and saves information in a linear format.

System Crystal

Determines the speed at which a CPU (central processing unit) is operated (sets the clock speed); it is usually a quartz oscillator.

System Bus

Supports the CPU (central processing unit), RAM (random access memory), and other motherboard components that provide the controlling element to the computer. It is responsible for coordinating the operation of the individual system components and central to the communications system of a computer. Also called the control bus.

Sysop (System Operator)

The system operator of a small BBS (bulletin board system). (Pronounced "SIS-op.")


Specific rules that prescribe how the symbols of a programming language can be written to form meaningful statements that will be understood by the PC.


Form of computer communication in which data is transmitted in packets containing more than one character. This is faster than asynchronous transmission because there is no start/stop bit between each individual character.

Switch Box

Allows the user to manually (or automatically) switch cable connections so that one computer can use several different printers or devices with one parallel port.

SVGA (Super Video Graphics Array)

A video standard. The minimum requirement for SVGA compatibility is 640 pixels × 480 pixels at 256 colors. At the low end, typical SVGA systems are operated at 800 × 600 at any color depth. Today, most SVGAs run at 1024 × 768 at 256 with 64 K colors or better.

Surge Suppressor

Used to prevent large power spikes (such as from lightning) from damaging a computer.


Technology found in Pentium processors allowing the Pentium to have two instruction pipelines, thereby increasing the speed of processing.

Star Network

A type of network configuration in which all computers are connected to a central point called a hub. The hub collects and distributes the flow data within the network. In large networks, several hubs may be connected. This is the easiest form of network topology to troubleshoot because all information goes through a hub, making it easier to isolate problems.


Holds computer output before sending it to a printer. This enables the main program to run more quickly because the print spooler handles output. The print spooler then distributes output to the printer at the proper speed.


Any program (set of instructions) that causes a computer to carry out a task or function.

Shadow RAM

Many high-speed motherboards use shadow RAM to improve the performance of a computer. Shadow RAM rewrites (or shadows) the contents of the ROM BIOS and/or video BIOS into extended RAM (between the 640-KB boundary and 1 MB). This allows systems to operate faster when application software calls BIOS routines. In some cases, system speed can be increased up to 400 percent.

Server Network

This type of network requires a central server (dedicated computer) to manage access to all shared files and peripherals.


The computer that runs the network operating system, manages security, and administers access to resources; strictly speaking, any computer that stores information and allows outside users to get copies of that information.


Transmission of one bit at a time over a single wire.

Search Engine

A program that searches indexes of Internet addresses using keywords. There are hundreds of search engines located on servers throughout the Internet. Popular search engines include Google, AltaVista, Bing, Yahoo, HotBot, and Excite.

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)

A standard way of interfacing a computer to disk drives and other devices that require high-speed data transfer. Up to 16 SCSI devices, including the host adapter, can be connected in a daisy chain fashion. These devices can be hard disk drives, CD-ROMs, scanners, or printers. SCSI is the only common computer interface that allows adding both internal and external devices on the same chain. (Pronounced "scuzzy.")


A process that converts a photograph, graphic, or text image found on paper into an electronic computer file.


A peripheral that converts information from the written page (or a printed graphic) to digital information that can be used by the computer. Works in a manner similar to the scanning process in a photocopy machine.


A device that works like a bridge but is able to select the best route from network to network based on traffic load. A router can also connect dissimilar networks.

ROM (Read-Only Memory)

Computer memory that contains instructions that do not need to be changed, such as operating system startup instructions. The computer can access data from ROM but cannot put new data into it.

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing)

Uses a smaller and simpler set of instructions to control the processor, thereby greatly enhancing the processing speed.

Ring Network

A type of network in which all the servers and clients are connected in a closed loop.


A measurement of the detail of images produced by a monitor or printer. Normally measured by a horizontal and vertical number of pixels for monitors or dpi (dots per inch) for laser printers. The higher the number, the better the quality and the more memory required by the system.


A device that works like an amplifier; it increases or boosts a signal to allow transmissions over longer distances.


A file or set of files in Microsoft Windows 95 and later versions that stores information about a computer's hardware and software configuration.


Temporary memory storage areas located inside the CPU (central processing unit). Used to hold the intermediate results of calculations or other operations.

Real Mode

An MS-DOS mode in which a computer can perform only one operation at a time and an application expects full control of the system. Real mode operates within the MS-DOS 1-MB limitation.

RAM (Random Access Memory)

The main memory where a computer temporarily stores data.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)

The combining of several drives using either hardware or software controls to make them seem to be one drive.

Protected Mode

A mode introduced with 80286 processors that used an operating system like OS/2 or Windows to allow creation of virtual machines. These provided the functionality of a standard computer in real mode but allowed multiple tasks to take place at the same time. The term refers to the fact that processor, memory, and other hardware are "protected" from the software applications by the operating system, which allocates the memory and processor time.


A set of rules that govern the transfer of information. The format used to upload or download files to allow two different computers to communicate in a standard format.

Define Prompt

The command prompt—a user interface provided by COMMAND.COM in MS-DOS to signal to the user that the computer is ready to receive input (for example, C:\> or A:\>).

Professional Graphics Adapter (PGA)

An adapter that was originally marketed to the engineering and scientific communities. It was expensive and required three ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) slots when fully configured. This system offered 3-D rotation and 60 frames per second animation. It used a 15-pin, three-row, female DB-type connector. It gained limited use in CAD environments, but was quickly replaced by better mass-market solutions.


A peripheral device that transfers computer output to paper or other form of hard copy.

Power Supply

Takes alternating current (AC) power from a local source (a wall outlet) and converts it to direct current (DC) for on-board electronics use.

Define Power

The strength or force actually put forth by electricity. Electrical power is measured in watts, which is measured by multiplying voltage by current.


Specific channel used by a network service. For example, Gopher often uses port 70, while some Web sites use port 80.


Similar to a printer, but uses pens to draw an image. Used most often with graphics and drawing programs.


Short for "picture element." One of the dots that make up a graphical image.


The amount of time a pixel stays visible on a monitor screen, which is a factor of the decay of activity in the phosphor coating.


An external device connected to a computer such as a printer, scanner, modem, or joystick.

Peer-to-Peer Network

A network in which each connected computer acts as either a server or a client depending on the users' needs. Each user or workstation establishes its own security and determines which resources are available to other users. These networks are limited in size, usually no more than 15 to 20 workstations.


The address to a file. The path consists of the drive name, the location of the file in the directory structure, and the filename. Example: C:\Mystuff\MYFILE.DOC.

Parity Bit

A very basic type of error-correcting code that uses the value of an extra bit sent at the end of a data string. The bit must have a set value based on an algorithm to verify that the data at the receiving end is correct.

Define Parallel

The transmission of several bits at the same time over separate wires.

Define Packet

A group of consecutive characters transmitted from one computer to another over a network.

Operating System

The program that controls a PC and makes it possible for users to run their own applications. The operating system provides the built-in routines that allow the computer to recognize commands, manage files, connect devices, and perform I/O (input/output) operations.

Define Online

The state in which two or more computers are connected to each other, making data transmission possible.

ohm Ω

A unit of electrical resistance.

Offline Reader

A program to display e-mail messages that have been downloaded to a computer.

Define Offline

Networked computers that are not actively connected so that transmission of data is not possible.

NetBIOS/NetBEUI (networked basic input/output system/NetBios Enhanced User Interface)

A local area networking protocol developed by IBM and refined by Microsoft; originally, the native protocol for LAN Manager and Windows NT. IBM developed NetBIOS as a way to permit small groups of computers to share files and printers efficiently. NetBIOS is the original edition; NetBEUI is an enhanced version for more powerful networks in the 32-bit operating system.

Network Card

An expansion card that connects a computer to a group of computers so they can access information and programs. Also known as a network interface card (NIC) and network adapter card.

Define Network

A group of computers connected together to share data and resources.

Nanosecond (ns)

One-billionth of one second. The time increment used to measure access speed of the memory chip.


The operation of more than one application at what appears to be the same time on the same PC. The CPU (central processing unit) quickly switches between the various programs, making it possible to work in more than one program at once.

MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures)

A standard means by which vendors estimate the expected life span of a given product line.


Device used with graphical environments to point and select objects on the system's monitor. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes.


Also known as a PWB or printed wiring board, it is the large circuit board found inside the computer. For all practical purposes, it is the computer. It contains the following items: chip set, data bus, address bus, expansion slots, clock, battery, and memory.


The primary output device, which resembles a television set. It visually displays text and graphics.

Molex Connector

Type of power supply connector primarily used for devices that need both 12-volt and 5-volt power (floppy disk drives). The most common type of connector.

Modem (MOdulator/DEModulator)

Converts computer data to information that can be transmitted via wires (telephone, ISDN, fiber optics) and wireless communication. Allows communication between computers over long and short distances.


A type of power supply connector primarily used on 3.5-inch floppy disk drives.

Microsoft Control Panel

The new interface for system management tools that was introduced with Microsoft Windows NT. It offers a single interface to access and utilize a variety of tools.


An integrated circuit containing the entire CPU (central processing unit) of a computer, all on one chip, so that only the memory and I/O (input/output) devices need to be added.


Just like the microphone on a tape recorder. Allows input of voice or music to be recorded and saved to a computer file.

Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)

A short-lived, 32-bit expansion bus that was a proprietary design of IBM used on the IBM PS/2 computer. By abandoning the open design of the existing PC market, IBM limited the willingness of developers and buyers alike to use MCA.

Define Memory

The area within a computer where information is stored while being worked on. It stores information (in the form of data bits) that the CPU (central processing unit) and software need to keep running.

Megahertz (MHz)

One million hertz (one million cycles per second). A measurement of CPU clock speed.

MegaByte (MB)

An amount of computer memory equal to 220. 1,048,576 bytes = 1024 kilobytes. One megabyte can store more than one million characters.

MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter)

Displays text only at a resolution of 720 pixels × 350 pixels. An MDA is perfect for use with MS-DOS-based word-processing and spreadsheet programs. The MDA uses a 9-pin male connector.

Mailing List

A list of subscribers to a particular discussion group. This database can also be used to distribute e-zines (electronic magazines).


The names assigned to the parallel printer ports on a PC.

Logging On

Means by which—when connecting to a remote computer—the host computer (the one that is called) gives permission to connect. The process of sending the appropriate information to sign on is called logging on. Often a user name and password are required.

Local Bus

A separate bus in the computer designed to provide extra-fast access to the CPU (central processing unit) for certain devices, such as video cards.

Link aka Hyperlink

Link Means, also known as a hyperlink, by which a reader is moved to a different location on the Internet when the link is activated. When text is used for a hyperlink, it is often colored differently from the body text of the page so it stands out.

LAN (Local Area Network)

A network that covers a limited distance (such as a single building or facility) to allow computers to share information and resources.

Kilobyte (KB)

A unit of memory equal to 1024 characters or bytes (1 KB = one kilobyte).

Define Keyboard

A primary input device much like a typewriter, used for entering text and command function shortcuts into a computer.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

A host computer that users can dial into over a modem to connect to the Internet.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Groups of experts drawn from the industry that set standards for various technologies. The work of these teams has led to development of SCSI (Small Computer System Interface), SGML and Internet standards, as well as the ASCII character set.


A telecommunication standard that allows a channel to carry voice and data in digital form over a single line.

ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)

One of several common expansion slot and card designs.

IRQ (Interrupt Request)

A wire used by the CPU (central processing unit) to control the flow of data. It prevents devices from trying to communicate with the CPU at the same time by "interrupting" and temporarily stopping the CPU to deal with a particular request.

IPX/SPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet Exchange)

NetWare core protocol developed by Novell in the early 1980s.

IP address (Internet Protocol address)

A unique address that identifies every network and host on the Internet. (A host is defined as the TCP/IP network interface within the computer, not the computer itself—a computer with two network cards will have two IP addresses.)

IP (Internet Protocol)

The protocol used to define how data is transmitted over the Internet.

I/O Address

A unique name assigned to each device that allows the CPU (central processing unit) to recognize the device with which it is communicating.


A system that links computer networks all over the world.

internal cache

High-speed memory built into the processor to store frequently used data. This bypasses the need to access slower devices such as RAM (random access memory) or hard drives.

Integrated Circuit (IC)

An electronic device consisting of many miniature transistors and other circuit elements (resistors, capacitors, and so forth).

IDE (Integrated Device Electronics)

The most common standard for interfacing hard disk and CD-ROM drives in the PC environment. Much of the actual work of controlling the hard disk drive is handled by the system BIOS. This reduces hardware cost but introduces an overall system performance penalty during I/O (input/output) operations. See also Enhanced IDE (EIDE).

Define icon - What is icon

A small picture on a computer screen used in Windows (or other graphical operating system) to represent a group of files, an object, or operations. A user accesses the item he or she wants by clicking on the picture with the mouse.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

The protocol used to transmit data in the HTML (Hypertext Markup Langage) format.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

An application of SGML (Standardized General Markup Language) used to create Web pages.

Horizontal Refresh Rate (HRR)

The speed at which the electron beam in a CRT completes one horizontal trace.

Define Gopher - What is Gopher

A system of information retrieval that "digs" down through layers of menus to reach what you want. A Gopher system is generally text-based and is best for finding documents buried in archives such as university libraries. Some Web sites offer access to Gopher, but it has largely been replaced by information archives on Web sites.

General Protection Fault (GPF)

An error that occurs in Microsoft Windows when a program tries to access a memory location that is not allocated to it.

Define Gateway - What is Gateway

A link between different computer networks. It is usually a computer that acts as a translator between two completely dissimilar systems. Because it is both a translator and a router, it is usually slower than a bridge or router alone.


Scattering of data in files throughout a disk drive caused by the continual addition and deletion of files. Although not harmful to the computer, fragmentation slows down a hard drive because it causes the computer to access two or more places to retrieve a file. (You can alleviate this problem by running a defragmentation program.)

Form Factor

The standard physical configuration of a typical device such as a motherboard or a 3.5-inch hard disk drive.

Floppy Disk Drive

Low-capacity magnetic removable storage drive.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

(1) An application used for transferring files to and from another computer, usually over the Internet.

(2) The protocol by means of which these transfers take place.

Filenames (Filespec)

Ways to designate files. A traditional DOS filename is made up of three parts—a name of up to eight characters, a period, and an extension of up to three characters. The name can include any number, character, or the following symbols: _()~'!%$&#. For example: MYFILE.DOC. Spaces cannot be used in MS-DOS filenames. Long filenames used in newer operating systems can be much longer and include spaces.

Fiber-Optic Cable

A cable that is made out of light-conducting glass or plastic fibers. Multiple fiber cores can be bundled in the center of its protective tubing.

Expansion Slots

Specialized sockets that allow additional devices (circuit boards/adapter cards) to be attached to the motherboard (by means of the expansion bus). These are used to expand or customize a computer. They are an extension of the computer's bus system.

Expansion Buses

Provide the connection between expansion cards (drive controllers, video cards, modems, and so forth) and the system bus.

Define Ethernet - What is Ethernet

A type of local area network in which communication takes place by means of radio frequency signals carried by a coaxial cable.

Error Messages

Brief technical messages that are displayed by an application or operating system when an error occurs.

Enhanced Parallel Port (EPP)

Features 2 MB per second data transfer rates, bidirectional 8-bit operation, and addressing to support multiple (daisy-chained) peripherals on a single computer.

Enhanced IDE (EIDE)

A standard developed to increase the size of available disk drives and the speed of data transfer between the host and the disk drive.

Expanded Memory Specification (EMS)

A technique, developed by Lotus/Intel/Microsoft (LIM), that adds addressable memory to a computer system, overcoming the original MS-DOS upper memory limit. The LIM EMS uses a 64-KB section of memory (usually in upper memory) to provide a "window" into which data can be written. Once in this area, the data can be transferred to the expanded memory. The memory chips are located on an expansion card installed inside the computer.

E-mail (Electronic Mail)

The transmission of messages by computer from one person to another, often via the Internet.

Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)

An improvement on the older CGA standard. Supports a resolution of up to 640 pixels × 350 pixels at 16 colors in text-only mode or 640 × 200 at 2 colors in graphics mode. The EGA standard was not fully backward-compatible with CGA and MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter).

Enhanced Capabilities Port (ECP)

Developed by Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft. It features 2 MB per second data transfer and bidirectional 8-bit operation. ECP specifies whether transmitted information consists of data or commands for the peripheral.

Error-Correction Coding (ECC)

The use of a code to verify or disprove that a data string received is the same as the data sent.

Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)

Memory that requires a refresh signal to be sent to it periodically.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)

Units used to measure the resolution of images on many printers and scanners. Keep in mind that dpi is an exact measurement in laser printers but often used as an approximation in ink-jet printers.

Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM)

Memory that requires a refresh signal to be sent to it periodically.


The ability to transfer a file from a remote computer to your computer.

DOS Protected Mode Interface (DPMI)

Specification that allows multiple applications to access extended memory at the same time. Most memory manager producers and application developers have endorsed this standard. Microsoft Windows uses the DPMI specification.

DOS Prompt

Displays the active drive letter (for instance, C:) and directory. This indicates that the operating system is ready to accept the next command.

Disk Operating System (DOS)

A text-based operating system used by most early PCs to manage hardware, data, and applications.

Data Link Control (DLC)

A protocol developed by IBM to connect token-ring-based workstations to IBM mainframe computers. Printer manufacturers have adopted the protocol to connect remote printers to network print servers.


A location where files are grouped together on the disk. In the Microsoft Windows environment and Apple Macintosh operating systems, these are known as folders.

Direct Memory Access (DMA)

Allows a peripheral device to access the memory of a computer directly, without going through the CPU (central processing unit). This speeds up the transfer of data to or from external devices.

Device Driver

A program that extends the operating system to support specific devices.

Define Defragmentation - What is Defragmentation

Running a program to organize the files on a hard disk so that the various clusters of data for each file are once again contiguous. This helps to speed up the hard disk.

Default Drive

The active drive on the computer. Each drive has its own letter designation. Unless otherwise specified, any commands are performed on the default drive.

DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange)

A Microsoft Windows data exchange protocol that allows for the automatic updating of a file or open application when the source is modified.

Data Communications Equipment (DCE)

The receiver in a telecommunications connection.

Define Data Bus - What is Data Bus

A group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that is used by the CPU (central processing unit) to send and receive data from all the devices in the computer. Also called the external data bus.

Define Cursor - What is Cursor

When entering data, whether in an application or at an MS-DOS command prompt, the cursor (often a small flashing line) indicates the place at which the characters will be inserted.

Define CRT - What is Cathode-Ray Tube

The main component of a monitor. One end of the tube is a very slender cylinder containing an electron gun(s). The wider end is the display screen.

Define CPU - What is Central Processing Unit

The part of a computer that controls the arithmetic and logical operations and decoding and executing instructions.

Define Coprocessor - What is Coprocessor

A separate circuit inside a computer that adds additional functions to the CPU (central processing unit) or handles extra work while the CPU is busy.

Define Conventional Memory - What is Conventional Memory

The memory area between 0 and 640 KB that is designated for running MS-DOS and MS-DOS applications.

Define Conferences - What is Conferences

Different areas of conversation in an e-mail system that are topic-specific rather than individualized.

Define Compression - What is Compression

"Squeezing" a file down in size by getting rid of all the bits that are not really needed. Many files (especially those with graphics) are very large and require a long time to travel over the Internet, so they are best compressed before sent.

Define Command Mode - What is Command Mode

The character mode used in an operating system such as Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS, or UNIX that has a prompt where the user enters commands.

Define COM1, COM2 - What is COM1, COM2

The names assigned to the first two serial ports on a PC.

Define Cold Boot - What is Cold Boot

The process of restarting a computer after it has been powered down.

Define Code - What is Code

A way of representing information on a machine or in some physical form so that the information can be placed on the external data bus to be read by all devices. Also, statements (source code) written in a programming language that are compiled into executable instructions (object code).

Define Coaxial Cable - What is Coaxial Cable

Made of two conductors that share the same axis. The center is a relatively stiff copper wire encased in insulating plastic. A wire-mesh tube around the insulation serves as shielding. The outside is a tough insulating plastic tube.

Define CMOS Battery - What is CMOS Battery

Prevents unique information about the setup of the computer from being lost when the power is turned off. Also maintains the external clock time (not to be confused with the CPU's clock).

Define CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) - What is CMOS

A form of read-only memory chip that gets its name from the way it is manufactured and not the information it holds. CMOS chips are used to store data that is read by the BIOS (basic input/output system) to obtain information on hardware configurations.

Define Clusters | What is Clusters

A unit of storage on a mass-storage device such as a hard disk drive or CD-ROM. On a hard drive, a cluster usually consists of two to eight sectors. The actual amount of data a cluster can hold is dependent on the operating system and controller type.

Define Clone | What is Clone

A term that derives from the early days of personal computing used to denote a computer compatible with, but not manufactured by, IBM.

Define Clock Speed | What is Clock Speed

Measured in megahertz (MHz)—millions of cycles per second—it is the speed at which a clock can cycle, or how fast a CPU (central processing unit) can execute a command. With faster CPUs, the term is now migrating to gigahertz (GHz).

Define Chip Set | What is Chip Set

A group of computer chips or integrated circuits (ICs) that, when working in harmony, manage and control the computer system. This set includes the CPU (central processing unit) and other chips that control the flow of data throughout the system. Typical chip sets consist of a bus controller, a memory controller, data and address buffer, and a peripheral controller.

Define Chip | What is Chip

The ultimate integrated circuit; contains the complete arithmetic and logic unit of a computer.

Define CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) | What is CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)

An early color graphics adapter standard with resolutions of 320 pixels by 200 pixels or 640 × 200. CGA supported no more than four colors.

Define CD-ROM | What is CD-ROM

CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) - A disc similar to an audio compact disc containing computer data.

Define Case Sensitivity | What is Case Sensitivity

The ability of the operating system to distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters. MS-DOS commands are not case-sensitive; UNIX commands are.

Define Cache | What is Cache

A place where data is stored so that it does not need to be read from a slower device. Copies of frequently used disk sectors are stored in RAM (random access memory) so they can be accessed without accessing the hard disk.

Define Byte | What is Byte

A group of 8 bits that represents 1 character of information (for instance, pressing one key on the keyboard). A byte is the standard unit for measuring memory in a microprocessor. Memory size is measured in terms of kilobytes (KB) or megabytes (MB). 1 KB of RAM is 1024 bytes; 1 MB is approximately one million bytes.

Define Bus Network | What is Bus Network

A network in which all computers are connected to a single linear cable. Both ends of the cable must be terminated. Because there is no central point, it is harder to isolate problems in a bus network than in a star network topology.

Define Bus Mastering | What is Bus Mastering

The ability of a device to control its own data bus, only making use of the main system bus when data must be sent to the CPU or another device. This reduces CPU and system bus traffic, improving overall performance.

Define Bus | What is Bus

The main communication avenue in a computer. It consists of a set of parallel wires that are connected to the CPU (central processing unit), memory, and all input/output devices. The bus can transmit data in either direction between any two components. If a computer did not have a bus, it would need separate wires to connect all the components.

Define Browser | What is Browser

Software used to navigate the World Wide Web, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Opera.

Define Broadband | What is Broadband

A network with high bandwidth (sometimes defined as greater than 256 bps).

Define Bridge | What is Bridge

A device that provides communication between two or more network segments, thereby forming one logical network.

Define BPS (Bits Per Second) | What is BPS (Bits Per Second)

The speed at which a modem transmits data. Typical rates are 14,400, 28,800, 33,600, and 56,600 bps. This represents the actual number of data bits that can be transmitted per second.

Define Boot Up | What is Boot Up

To start a computer; drawn from the phrase "pulling oneself up by one's own bootstraps."

Define Boot Partition | What is Boot Partition

A hard disk partition containing the portion of the operating system needed to launch the operating environment.

Define Bi-Tronics | What is Bi-Tronics

A modified Centronics connection created by Hewlett-Packard. It utilizes bidirectional communication, allowing the printer to send messages to the computer (for example, out of paper, paper jam, and so forth).

Define Bit | What is Bit

The smallest unit of information that is recognized by a microcomputer. Shorthand term for binary digit. There are only two possible binary digits: 0 and 1.

Define BIOS | What is BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

Software that includes the initialization programs stored on ROM (read-only memory) chips. Used during the startup routine to check out the system and prepare to run the hardware.

Define Binary System | What is Binary System

The language used by computers that is based on something being either on or off. There are only two digits used in binary language: 1 equals on, and 0 equals off.

Define Binary File | What is Binary File

A file type in the form of pure data (1s and 0s) that needs to be converted to an image, sound, or application to be used. See also ASCII file.

Define BBS (Bulletin Board System) | What is Bulletin Board System

A local computer system that is not part of the Internet. It allows users to dial in and chat with others and download or upload files.

Define Baud | What is Baud

Roughly speaking, a measurement of how fast data can be sent over telephone lines.

Define Battery | What is Battery

A power source for use outside or as an alternate to electricity. Prevents unique information about the setup of the computer from being lost when the power is turned off. Also maintains the external clock time (not to be confused with the CPU's clock).

Define Bandwidth | What is Bandwidth

Used in several ways to denote the amount of data or load capacity of a medium. (1) The range of frequencies that an electronic system can transmit. High bandwidth allows fast transmission or the ability to transmit many signals at once. (2) On a monitor screen, a higher bandwidth provides a sharper image. (3) The rate at which data can be sent over a modem or other telecommunication device.

Define Backslash | What is Backslash (\)

Symbol used to separate each directory level, for instance C:\Windows\Utilities. For this reason, it is a reserved character and cannot be used as part of a filename.

Define Attachment | What is Attachment

A file attached to e-mail; most e-mail clients allow the user to append files (for instance, graphics files like .gif or .jpeg files) to e-mail as a handy way of sending information to other people.

Define Asynchronous | What is Asynchronous

Not synchronized—the computer is free to transmit any number of characters at any time. The bits constituting a single character are transmitted at a fixed rate, but the pauses between transmissions can be of any duration.

Define ASCII File | What is ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Commonly used term to refer to a text file that contains only data as set forth by the American Standard Code for Information Interchange to conform to their standard.

Define Ampere | What is Ampere

A measurement of electrical current strength.

Define AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) | What is AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)

An Intel- designed expansion port found on Pentium II and later computers that allows a separate data path for display adapters.

Define Address Bus - What is Address Bus

A group of parallel conductors (circuit traces) found on the motherboard that are used by the CPU (central processing unit) to "address" memory locations. Determines what information or code is sent to or received from the data bus.

Define Access Speed - What is Access Speed

The time required to complete read or write instructions as required by the memory controller chip. Usually measured in nanoseconds (ns) for memory chips and milliseconds (ms) for disk drives. Most manufacturers rate average access time on a hard disk as the time required for a seek across one third of the total number of cylinders plus one half of the time for a single revolution of the disk platters.

Opera Web Browser

Opera browser was developed by Chris Jacobs. It was first released in 1996. However, the browser was not known by large number of internet users. Opera 11.0 is the latest version of the browser. This new version released in December 2010. You cannot only use Opera browser on your desktops and laptops but on your mobile phones as well. Main features of the browser include tab browsing and download manager. Opera also allows you to zoom-in/zoom-out the web pages. This new version is available with high end security. Phishing and spyware protection are the main highlights of its security features. Today, more than 4.5% of internet users are using Opera browser. You can download the new version of Opera browser from

Mozilla Firefox


Mozilla Firefox is the second most popular Internet browser. It is an open browser which is available for free. Today, 30% of total internet users around the world are using Firefox. In Germany, the figure is 60%. Things like private browsing and download manager makes the browser more user-friendly. It also offers private security. Another highlight is Geolocation that helps users in choosing content on the basis of their location. Best feature of Mozilla Firefox is that it works on all the three major operating systems namely Linux, Windows and Mac. Latest version of the Browser is 4.0 edition (Beta) which was released on December 22nd 2010. You can download it from

Google Chrome

Google Chrome

Google chrome is an internet browser developed by Google. The browser is notable for it high speed. The user-friendly interface is making it a rage among the users of any and every age. There is nothing to confuse you on the browser. You just find two things: Address bar and a tab button. One of the highlighted features of the browser is that you can search for the information by writing keywords in the address bar. Although you will find this feature in internet Explorer 9 however there are other features of Google Chrome that compel you to choose Chrome over IE9. Google was first introduced in September 2008 and since then more than 13.5% internet users have started using it. The multifaceted browser allows you to see the web pages in 52 languages. To enjoy high speed browsing in your own language download the browser from

What to Do When Computer Doesn't Start

My computer is not starting up. What faults could be there???

If you are facing issues with computer boot process there could two reasons. First one is hardware and software is the second one. If there is a fault in hardware, there might be some problem with motherboard, hard disk, RAM, power supply or monitor. Loose RAM or cable also falls into the same category. When you start your computer, it checks the hardware and gives a beep indicating that it has been started. In case, your computer doesn’t give any beep and shuts down on its own, you should consult a hardware specialist. If you have some hardware knowledge, open the CPU to check memory module and other connections are connected correctly.

Did you find some problem in memory module? Humidity and dirt can spoil the memory module. If this is the reason, remove the memory module from the slot clean it and put it again. If CPU’s fan isn’t working or if the heat sink is not fitted properly even then your computer would not work properly. It is because computer must get proper ventilation so that it doesn’t get hot.

In case, there are some software issues with the computer, try following tips:

  • If there is some fault in your hard disk or virus has attacked your system, you would come across issues such as Invalid partition table, missing operating system etc.
  • Error NTLDR is missing shows up when boot sector is corrupt.
  • There is a file named “boot.ini” in the root of C Drive. If it is corrupt, you will see error, “Could not read from selected disk.”
  • If you are getting nothing but blue screen and you can’t do anything as the system is stuck, it could be both software as well as hardware issue.

To solve these issues, you might need to install OS i.e., Windows XP or Windows 7 & again. Few issues can be rectified without reinstalling Windows XP on your computer. To accomplish this, boot Windows CD and press R when you see “Windows to setup” on your screen. Now go to Command Prompt and select Windows XP which has been installed on your hard disk. Select the number of the windows installation which is not working correctly. “c:\> prompt” will show up on your screen. If you are getting error messages such as “Missing operating system” or “Invalid partition table”, type fixmbr and press enter. If the error message is “NTLDR missing”, type fixboot c: Another error message that could occur is “Could not read from selected disk”. In this case, type bootcfg/rebuild and then type exit. Now restart your computer.